NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

The latest news and information about NOAA research in and around the Great Lakes


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Exploring the diversity of native species with Great Lakes Water Life

From prehistoric-looking lake sturgeon to colorful crayfish, the Great Lakes are alive with thousands of remarkable native species. To document and celebrate the diversity of fauna native to the Great Lakes, NOAA-GLERL has partnered with US EPA and the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network to launch the new Great Lakes Water Life database: a comprehensive, accessible inventory of aquatic species found throughout the region.

Three researchers aboard a boat hold up a large lake sturgeon that is as long as they are tall.
Researchers hold a lake sturgeon, one of the many species native to the Great Lakes (photo courtesy of Todd Marsee, Michigan Sea Grant).

Great Lakes Water Life (GLWL) is designed to support environmental researchers and managers by hosting a broad range of ecological information and tools: identification guides for native species, records of rare or unfamiliar taxa, lists of expected species in a specific area, summaries of broad-scale biodiversity patterns, and more. This site is also available for public use to students, citizen scientists, and other Great Lakes residents who want to learn about native species in their area, providing new opportunities for outreach and education online.

“This user-friendly database captures the unique biological diversity of the Laurentian Great Lakes,” said Debbie Lee, Director of the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.  “The search function invites the curious to learn about the amazing water life native to the largest surface freshwater system on earth.”

A screenshot of the Great Lakes Water Life home page, featuring an about section, a search tool, additional resources, and a contribution portal.
The new Great Lakes Water Life landing page.

GLWL allows users to search for species by taxa, origin, domain, and broad geographic location. Each species result links to taxonomic information, a bibliography of references and sighting information, links into Barcode of Life DNA markers, and more. The database also includes links to other taxonomic keys and field guides to native species, information about the purpose and history of this project, and a user contribution portal where researchers can share new photos, sightings, and collection records to be added to the site.

A screenshot of the Great Lakes Water Life search results, showing several species of native fish.
Users can search for native species to learn more about taxonomic information, geographic location, DNA markers, and more.

This database builds on a previous project known as the “Great Lakes Waterlife Gallery,” originally created in 2002 in support of Sea Grant’s Great Lakes Fisheries Leadership Institute in partnership by NOAA-GLERL and the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network. 

Another NOAA-led regional database, the Great Lakes Nonindigenous Species Information System (GLANSIS), runs in parallel with GLWL to more comprehensively document the non-native aquatic species that have been introduced to the Great Lakes. Cross-linking the two systems helps GLANSIS to provide DNA information on non-native species and identify species that may be expanding their ranges, highlighting the value of the native species inventory to monitoring for and understanding the impact of aquatic invaders. Great Lakes invaders shouldn’t get all the press coverage, however — researchers hope that the Great Lakes Water Life database will help fellow scientists make informed management decisions and help the public get to know more about the unique native creatures that inhabit the Great Lakes.

To learn more about the Great Lakes Water Life database or contribute information, please visit the site or contact Rochelle.Sturtevant@noaa.gov.


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Special Two-Day Science Translation Session at IAGLR 2019

This June, fellow researchers from around the world will gather in Brockport, New York, on the shores of the Erie Canal for IAGLR’s 62nd annual Conference on Great Lakes ResearchHosted by The College at Brockport, State University of New York, the conference will feature four days of scientific sessions and speakers focusing on the theme Large Lakes Research: Connecting People and Ideas. Mark your calendars for June 10-14, 2019. You won’t want to miss it! 

During the conference there will be a special two-day session that highlights the importance of science translation.  The session, Beyond Peer Review: Why You Must Connect Your Science to Stakeholders (and how to do it), will consist of several components—17 formal presentations, a moderated panel discussion, a synthesis discussion with Q&A, as well as a Skills Café. Conference attendees are welcome to join us for any and all portions of this session. We hope to see you there!


Day 1 – Tuesday, June 11th

On Tuesday, the SciComm session will include 12 presentations and a panel moderated discussion with science communication thought leaders Peter Annin (Author), Andrea Densham (Shedd), Sandra Svoboda (DPTV) & TJ Pignataro (Buffalo News). The panelists will explore what they see happening now and what they think the future looks like for connecting people and ideas for large lakes research.

Tuesday Morning (Edwards Hall Room 103)

Tuesday Afternoon (Edwards Hall Room 103)

  • 1:40-3:20 pm – 5 presentations
  • 3:20-3:40 pm – Break
  • 3:40-5:20 pm – 4 presentations

Day 2 – Wednesday,  June 12th

On Wednesday, the SciComm session will continue with 5 formal presentations, and a synthesis discussion in the morning and a Skills Café in the afternoon.

Wednesday Morning (Edwards Hall Room 103)

  • 8:00-9:20 am – 3 presentations
  • 9:20-9:40 am – Break
  • 9:40-10:20 am – 2 presentations
  • 10:20-11:00 am – Interactive Synthesis Discussion and Question & Answer Session with Peter Annin (Author), Andrea Densham (Shedd), Sandra Svoboda (DPTV) & TJ Pignataro (Buffalo News)

Wednesday Afternoon (Edwards Hall Room 102)

  • 1:40 – 5:00 pm – Skills Café  –  This series of short interactive workshops will allow participants to practice a variety of skills that will make them more effective at communicating the “so what” of their research to lay – but key – audiences. 

The Panel: Hear the latest from science communication thought leaders!

Peter Annin, Author and Director of the Mary Griggs Burke Center for Freshwater Innovation

Peter Annin is the director of the Mary Griggs Burke Center for Freshwater Innovation and the author of The Great Lakes Water Wars, the definitive work on the Great Lakes water diversion controversy. Before coming to Northland College in 2015, Peter served as a reporter at Newsweek, the associate director of the Institute for Journalism and Natural Resources, and the managing director of the University of Notre Dame’s Environmental Change Initiative. He continues to report on the Great Lakes water diversion issue and has published a second edition of The Great Lakes Water Wars. 

Andrea Densham, Senior Director of Conservation and Advocacy at the Shedd Aquarium

Andrea Densham joined Shedd Aquarium in 2017 to lead the newly launched Conservation Policy and Advocacy team. Created to enhance Shedd’s position as a policy expert, Densham’s team develops and implements the institution’s policy goals. A government affairs thought leader and advisor, she brings more than 20 years of experience in not-for-profit management, strategic planning, research, and public policy and advocacy.

 

TJ Pignataro, Environmental Reporter for the Buffalo News

T.J. Pignataro has been a staff reporter for The Buffalo News for more than 20 years and the environment and weather reporter since 2013. He holds a juris doctor degree from SUNY Buffalo Law School and is completing his Certificate in Weather Forecasting this spring from the Pennsylvania State University’s Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science. TJ uses Twitter to convey Great Lakes environmental news, weather emergencies and Great Lakes science in plain language. 

Sandra Svoboda, Program Director, Great Lakes Now, Detroit Public Television

A nine-month stint with The Associated Press brought Sandra to Detroit … 29 years ago. She earned a bachelor’s in journalism from Indiana University and holds two master’s degrees from Wayne State, one in public administration and one in library and information science. The Special Libraries Association IT Division recognized her research with its 2018 Joe Ann Clifton Student Award for her paper on how Detroit voting dynamics can inform citizen engagement strategies. Sandra has worked for The (Toledo) Blade covering education/children’s issues, Detroit’s Metro Times and FEMA, where she deployed to Louisiana to help coordinate/communicate about community rebuilding/planning efforts for/after disasters. Sandra has won awards for broadcast, print, digital and community engagement work from the Michigan Associated Press, the Michigan Association of Broadcasters, Association of Alternative Newsweeklies, State Bar of Michigan, Michigan Press Association and Society of Professional Journalists-Detroit chapter, and Wayne State’s public administration program recognized her with the Distinguished Alumni Award in 2015 for her work covering Detroit’s bankruptcy. She has taught communications, writing, public policy, and political science at Wayne State University and the University of Michigan-Dearborn. As the Great Lakes region has always been her home Sandra has traveled between Minnesota and Tadoussac, Quebec, both on the water and on land. A competitive sailor, she races hundreds of miles each season on the Great Lakes, and once threw out a pitch at a Detroit Tigers game as recognition of her win with her team at the U.S. Women’s Match Racing Championship. She’s also eaten Asian carp as part of her coverage of invasive species.


The Skills Café: Get help communicating your research!

WHO: Do people’s eyes glaze over when you begin to talk about your research? Do you believe your research has the ability to make a difference, but you’re not sure how to get others excited about it too? Then this session is for you! For the researcher looking to improve their accessibility in attaining broader impacts; the early career professional seeking tips on how to set theirselves apart in a competitive market; the passionate scientist looking for ways to ensure their work makes an impact . . . the Skills Cafe is your opportunity to grow and try new things in a fun and supportive setting.

WHAT: This series of short interactive workshops will allow participants to practice a variety of skills that will make them more effective at communicating the “so what” of their research to lay—but key—audiences. Get tips on interacting with the media, hone your speaking skills, get feedback from a mock interview, and learn from the trials and tribulations of your peers!

WHEN: 1:40-5:00 pm on Wednesday, June 12.

WHERE: Edwards Hall, Room 102

For more information and a detailed schedule of activities stop by the NOAA exhibitor booth.


About IAGLR 2019: The 2019 International Association for Great Lakes Research Conference is hosted by The College at Brockport, State University of New York, June 10-14, 2019. The conference will feature four days of scientific sessions and speakers focusing on the theme “Large Lakes Research: Connecting People and Ideas.”

photo of building in water with skyline of city in backgroun


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NOAA and partners team up to prevent future Great Lakes drinking water crisis

A new video SMART BUOYS: Preventing a Great Lakes Drinking Water Crisis released by Ocean Conservancy describes how NOAA forecast models provide advance warnings to Lake Erie drinking water plant managers to avoid shutdowns due to poor water quality.

An inter-agency team of public and private sector partners, working with the Cleveland Water Department, are addressing drinking water safety for oxygen depleted waters (hypoxia). By leveraging NOAA’s operational National Weather Service and National Ocean Service forecast models and remote sensing for the Great Lakes, NOAA’s latest experimental forecast models developed by its Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory can predict when water affected by harmful algal blooms and hypoxia may be in the vicinity of drinking water intake pipes. Advance notice of these conditions allows water managers to change their treatment strategies to ensure the health and safety of drinking water.  

“Hypoxia occurs when a lot of organic material accumulates at the bottom of the lake and decomposes. As it decomposes, it sucks oxygen from the water, can discolor the water and allow for metals to concentrate,” explains Devin Gill, stakeholder engagement specialist for NOAA’s Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research, hosted at the University of Michigan.

Low dissolved oxygen on its own is not a problem for water treatment. However, low oxygen is often associated with a high level of manganese and iron in the bottom water that then leads to drinking water color, taste, and odor problems. In addition, the same processes that consume oxygen also lower pH and, if not corrected, could cause corrosion in the distribution system, potentially elevating lead and copper in treated water.

“Periodically, this water with depleted oxygen gets pushed up against the shoreline and the drinking water intakes pipes,” said Craig Stow, senior research scientist for NOAA’s Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. “We have buoys stationed at various places and those guide our models to let us know when conditions are right for upwellings that would move this hypoxic water into the vicinity of the drinking water intakes.”

NOAA provides advanced warning of these events so that drinking water plant managers can effectively change their treatment strategies to address the water quality, which is a huge benefit in the water treatment industry.


For more information on NOAA GLERL’s harmful algal blooms and hypoxia research, visit www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/HABs_and_Hypoxia.

map of great lakes showing colors of model output


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Improving lake effect snow forecasts by making models talk to each other

If you live in the Great Lakes basin and have been on or even near a road recently, you might be feeling unreasonably ragey at the mere mention of lake effect snow. We get it. But bear with us, because we’re doing some cool science we’d like to tell you about. It may even make your commute easier someday, or at least more predictable.

GLERL scientists are working with researchers at the University of Michigan’s Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research (CIGLR), the National Weather Service, and NOAA’s Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL) to make lake effect snow forecasts in the Great Lakes better.

NOAA’s high resolution rapid refresh (HRRR) model is the most commonly used weather model for predicting lake effect snow. An experimental version runs on a beastly high-performance computer at ESRL in Colorado, and predicts a whole list of atmospheric variables (including snowfall) every 15 minutes. The model relies on water surface temperature data, collected via satellite, to make its predictions. It’s important to give the model accurate water surface temperatures to estimate evaporation across the Great Lakes, since it is the main driver of lake effect snow.

Unfortunately, satellite temperature data has limitations. If clouds keep satellites from measuring the temperature at a specific location, the weather model will just use the most recent measurement it has. Since it’s especially cloudy in the Great Lakes during the lake effect snow season (late fall and early winter), that data could be days old. Because lake temperatures are changing quite rapidly this time of year, days-old data just doesn’t cut it.

As it turns out, GLERL already has a model that predicts Great Lakes surface temperature pretty well. The Great Lakes Operational Forecast System (GLOFS) spits out lake surface temperatures every hour. If we tell the weather model to use GLOFS output instead of satellite data, it has the potential to do a far better job of forecasting lake effect snow.

Linking two models like this is called “coupling”. GLOFS actually already uses input from HRRR—wind, air temperature, pressure, clouds and humidity data all inform GLOFS’ predictions. We’re just coupling the models in both directions. HRRR will send its output to GLOFS, GLOFS will “talk back” with its own predictions of water surface temperature (and ice cover), and HRRR will produce a (hopefully) more informed prediction of lake effect snow.

Initial results are promising. We used the coupled models to do a ‘hindcast’ (a forecast for the past) to predict lake effect snow for a major event over Lake Erie in November of 2014. They did a significantly better job than without coupling. The figure below shows the difference.

The coupled models improved cumulative snow water equivalent forecasts. Red shows where the model increased snowfall.

You’ll notice a band of blue on the southeastern edge of Lake Erie, indicating that the coupled models predicted less lake effect snow in that area. There’s a band of orange directly to the north of it, where the coupled models predicted more lake effect snow. What you’re seeing is the coupled model predicting the same band of snow, but further north, closer to where it actually fell.

That storm slammed the city of Buffalo, New York, killing 13 people. Better lake effect snow predictions have the potential to save lives.

GLERL and partners will be doing further testing this winter, and if it works out, the model coupling will be carried over in research-to-operations transitions.


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The HAB season is over, but the work goes on

It’s nearly winter here in the Great Lakes—our buoys are in the warehouse, our boats are making their way onto dry land, and folks in the lab are working hard to assess observed data, experiments, and other results from this field season.

habtracker2018

This is a retrospective animation showing the predicted surface chlorophyll concentrations estimated by the Experimental Lake Erie HAB Tracker model during the 2018 season. Surface chlorophyll concentrations are an indicator of the likely presence of HABs. For more information about how the HAB Tracker forecast model is produced and can be interpreted, visit our About the HAB Tracker webpage.

The harmful algal bloom (HAB) season is also long over in the region. The final Lake Erie HAB Bulletin was sent out on Oct. 11, as the Microcystis had declined in satellite imagery and toxins decreased to low detection limits in samples. In the seasonal assessment, sent out by NOAA’s Centers for Coastal Ocean Science on Oct. 26, it was determined that the season saw a relatively mild bloom—despite its early arrival in the lake—and the bloom’s severity was significantly less than that which was predicted earlier in the season. These bulletins and outlooks are compiled using several models. Over the winter, the teams working on the models take what they learn from the previous season, and update their models for future use.

Back in the lab, the HABs team—researchers from both GLERL and the Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research (CIGLR)—will spend the winter analyzing data they collected through a variety of observing systems. This summer was packed with the use of new observing technologies, like hyperspectral cameras and the Environmental Sample Processor (in case you missed it, check out this fun photo story of the experimental deployment of a 3rd generation ESP). In addition, GLERL and CIGLR staff maintained a weekly sampling program program, from which scientists are analyzing and archiving samples and conducting experiments.

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Aerial photograph of the harmful algal bloom in Western Basin of Lake Erie on July 2, 2018, (Photo Credit: Aerial Associates Photography, Inc. by Zachary Haslick). Pilots from Aerodata have been flying over Lake Erie this summer to map out the general scope of the algal blooms. In addition to these amazing photos, during the flyovers, additional images are taken by a hyperspectral imager (mounted on the back of the aircraft) to improve our understanding of how to map and detect HABs. The lead researcher for this project is Dr. Andrea VanderWoude, a NOAA contractor and remote sensing specialist with Cherokee Nation Businesses. For more images, check out our album on Flickr.

This lab work is super important for understanding the drivers of toxic algae in the Great Lakes. For instance, in a new study released this month, researchers looking at samples from previous years found that “ . . . the initial buildup of blooms can happen at a much higher rate and over a larger spatial extent than would otherwise be possible, due to the broad presence of viable cells in sediments throughout the lake,” according to the lead author Christine Kitchens, a research technician at CIGLR, who works here in the GLERL lab. This type of new information can be incorporated into the models used to make the annual bloom forecasts.

As you can see, our work doesn’t end when the field season is over.  In spring 2019, when the boats and buoys are back in the water and samples are being drawn from the lakes, researchers will already have a jump on their work, having spent the winter months analyzing previous years, preparing, and applying what they’ve learned to the latest version of the Experimental HAB Tracker, advanced observing technologies, and cutting-edge research on harmful algal blooms in the Great Lakes.


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A message from the director: A global community convenes on the shores of Lake Geneva, France to share lessons learned on large lakes

I had the pleasure of attending the European Large Lakes Symposium (ELLS) – International Association of Great Lakes Research (IAGLR) 2018 international conference entitled “Big Lakes, Small World” during the week of September 23-28, 2018 in Evian, France on the shores of Lake Geneva.  

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The ELLS-IAGLR symposium drew scientists studying large lakes systems from around the world to the shores of Lake Geneva in Evian, France.

This symposium was notable for many reasons, including being the first IAGLR meeting held outside of North America, in conjunction with the 5th European Large Lakes Symposium. I was impressed with the strong Great Lakes presence at ELLS. In addition to myself and Philip Chu representing the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL), colleagues from the Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research (CIGLR)—Tom Johengen, Dmitry and Raisa Beletsky—also attended. There were also a number of our Laurentian Great Lakes partners from around the basin participating in the symposium.

Like French cuisine, the conference “menu” was jam-packed with scientific gourmet entrees, which we gorged on each day from 8:45 in the morning until after the poster session concluding at 7:00 each evening.  The conference was held in the historic Palais Lumiere (below), formerly a bathhouse, circa 1902, converted into a convention and cultural center in 2006—where better to hold a conference focused on water?

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The symposium was held at the historic Palais Lumiere  formerly a bathhouse, circa 1902, converted into a convention and cultural center in 2006.

Presentations featured an array of topics, including the chemical, physical, and biological aspects of lakes exotic as the Amazonian floodplain lakes and Russia’s Lake Peipsi, as well as those large lakes familiar to us, such as the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and Lake Tahoe. Common issues of concern raised during the symposium involved the dynamic changes caused by multiple stressors, namely, increasing temperature, human populations, invasive species, and harmful algal blooms. One observation that I’m excited to report is the number of times NOAA data, products, and services were referenced in talks—a telltale sign that scientists worldwide are relying on NOAA expertise. Items ranged from a Great Lakes sticker on monitoring equipment to the use of graphics like NOAA global surface temperature maps and GLERL food web charts (twice!).  I also spotted a quote pulled from our 5-year science review and even one from our venerable Craig Stow (see image below). I counted at least 18 presentations that cited a connection to NOAA.

As a Great Lakes stakeholder attending this international symposium, I would like to convey to our Great Lakes partners from around the region that we, as a community, can take pride and satisfaction that our daily work results in global impact on large lakes—small world!

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Michelle Selzer, Lake Coordinator with the Michigan Office of the Great Lakes, quotes GLERL’s Craig Stow on the topic of establishing phosphorus load targets in Lake Erie: “Going forward, our willingness and ability to monitor, evaluate, and update the targets will be more important than the original targets.”

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Philip Chu with Ph.D candidate Theo Baracchini and Dr. Shubham Krishna of Physics and Aquatic Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.

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CIGLR scientist, Dmitry Beletsky, presents at ELLS on a CIGLR/GLERL research project to advance hypoxia forecasting.

 


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From scuba diving to lab instruments, Dave Fanslow encourages young scientists to “stay flexible”

A man stands in a laboratory near a black, cylindrical instrument.

Dave Fanslow stands with GLERL’s fluoroprobe.

Dave Fanslow is a GLERL biologist of 25 years. He’s basically done it all, but these days he takes care of the lab’s fluoroprobe – a special instrument that measures different types of algae using light beams. Read our interview with Dave to learn more about the fluoroprobe, along with a decades-old scientific mystery that still haunts him and a fear he had to overcome on the job.

How would you describe your job?

My job is to support the principal investigators with technical know-how in the laboratory. I spend a lot of my day working on instruments right now – the flowcam and the fluoroprobe — which are both used to assess and describe HABs, or harmful algal blooms.

The fluoroprobe is a new device that uses LED lights that trigger a response from the algae, which have unique pigments in them that respond to very distinct wavelengths – so it’s able to distinguish between types of algae simply by flashing an LED light as you pull it through the water. It first came out in about 2014. We had one of the first here at GLERL.

What is the most interesting thing you’ve accomplished in your job?

The most interesting thing that I worked on was actually an unresolved question, the disappearance of the Diporeia from Lake Michigan. There was an amphipod organism called Diporeia that is still present in tiny numbers but used to be really common, and was the basis for the lower food web in Lake Michigan prior to the expansion of quagga mussels. In the mid-90’s, those organisms plummeted from numbers of around 10,000 per square meter down to practically zero in the large majority of the lake.

There was some assumption of effect by zebra mussels and quagga mussels, but we never did really figure that out. The change in the food web was occurring anyway, where quagga mussels were going to take over and dominate the system…so the exact reason for the disappearance of the Diporeia didn’t really matter in the ultimate outcome. But, it was a mystery that piqued my interest and I wish we had been able to describe it. It may have been relevant for some other instance. If it was a disease, if it was an invertebrate disease that was introduced by some other invasive species, that’s a form of microbiological pollution, and it would’ve been nice to nail that down and figure that out.

What do you feel is the most significant challenge in your field today?

The hardest part about doing what we do is the disconnect that I sometimes feel exists between policymakers and scientists. And, I know that’s something that scientists and researchers have struggled with forever, it’s not new, and it’s an ongoing problem to communicate the issues and hope that policymakers make good decisions based on good information.

Where do you find inspiration? Where do your ideas come from in your research or other endeavors in your job?

Most of my inspiration comes from encounters with the public, family and friends who are invariably enthusiastic and concerned about the Great Lakes. People in Michigan in particular, it’s part of our identities, and so that’s where I get my motivation because I know people care.

A man in a laboratory points at graphs on a computer screen.

Dave Fanslow explains some data coming from the fluoroprobe.

There’s a fun story about a fear you had to overcome to do this job. Can you tell us about that?

When I first got the job interview, I was told that they wanted me to do scuba diving to collect zebra mussels. This was at the very beginning of the zebra mussel invasion in 1992. I wasn’t super comfortable with swimming and the water, but I thought I would check it out. So I did my research, read about it, went to the pool and practiced, and said yeah I’ll take the job. Then I got trained at NOAA diving headquarters in Seattle where they have retired Navy Seals conducting the training. Then, I conducted over 500 dives over the next 6 or 7 years, mostly related to collecting zebra mussels and then also in the early stages of the Thunder Bay Marine Sanctuary, observing some of the wrecks and establishing moorings up there.

How would you advise young people interested in science as a career path, or someone interested in your particular field?

My general advice would be that they be flexible in terms of not narrowing down their discipline too much until they get out in the field and discover what the opportunities are. I know that in my career, what I have worked on, the area of technical expertise has ranged wildly over the 25 years I’ve been at GLERL. From picking bugs initially, to measuring lipid content, to measuring enzyme content in mussels and Diporeia…to now I’m working with electronic instruments. So, be flexible.

What do you wish people knew about scientists or research?

Well, one thing I think that people tend to assume about scientists is that they’re eggheads who are narrowly focused on their own work to the exclusion of the rest of the big questions about what’s going on in the environment and in society in general. So, scientists are well-rounded and multi-dimensional people too.

What do you like to do when you AREN’T sciencing?

When I’m not at the lab I have raced my bike a lot over the years, starting when I was an undergraduate. I am now kind of transitioning into middle age and doing other things like gardening and canoeing and fishing. Usually it involves being outside in the environment and making observations about the plants and the bugs and the weather and the things that are around me. We have a place on Lake Superior, and just being there and seeing the change in the weather from day to day and hour to hour is a blast; it’s one of my favorite things.